Category Archives: Cacatua

Kakatua-kecil Jambul-kuning | Cacatua sulphurea | Yellow-crested Cockatoo

The Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea, also known as the Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, is a medium-sized (approximately 35 cm long) cockatoo with white plumage, bluish-white bare orbital skin, grey feet, a black bill, and a retractile yellow crest. The sexes are similar.

C.s. sulphurea: both adults white plumage with yellow at bases of feathers of head and underparts; bright yellow crest and ear coverts. Eye ring soft white. Eye dark brown in male, brown/red in female. C.s. parvula: both adults as in sulphurea, but yellow ear coverts paler and feather bases less yellow where mentioned. C.s. abbotti: both adults as in parvula but larger in size. C.s. citrinocristata: both adults crest and ear coverts golden orange.

Colourization Juvenile:

C.s. sulphurea: as in adult, but with pale grey eye. C.s. parvula: as in adult. C.s. abbotti: as in adult. C.s. citrinocristata: as in adult.

The Yellow-crested Cockatoo is found in wooded and cultivated areas of Timor-Leste and Indonesia’s islands of Bali, Timor, Sulawesi and Lesser Sunda Islands. It is easily confused with the larger and more common Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, which is native to Australia and can be distinguished by the lack of pale yellow coloring on its cheeks (although some sulphur-cresteds develop yellowish patches). Also, the Yellow-crested Cockatoo’s crest is a brighter color, closer to orange. The Citron-crested Cockatoo is similar, but its crest is orange.

Population estimate Population trend Range estimate (breeding/resident) Country endemic?
2,500-9,999 decreasing 256,000 km Indonesia

Range & population Cacatua sulphurea is endemic to Timor-Leste and

Indonesia, where it was formerly common throughout Nusa Tenggara (from Bali to Timor), on Sulawesi and its satellite islands, and the Masalembu Islands (in the Java Sea). It has undergone a dramatic decline, particularly in the last quarter of the 20th century, such that it is now extinct on many islands and close to extinction on most others. Sumba appears to support the largest remaining population, tentatively estimated (in 1992) at c.3,200 birds (but declining by perhaps 500 birds annually, with just 10% of the island still forested in 34 fragments2), with other significant (but considerably smaller) populations on Komodo (c.500 individuals), Sulawesi, Buton, Moyo and Timor-Leste1. Tiny populations of just a few individuals also exist in the Tukangbesi Islands, on Oroho Island (a satellite of Wangi Wangi Island) and on Lintea Selatan (a satellite of Tomea Island)10. The Komodo population alone (where poaching is virtually absent) declined by an estimated 60% between 2000-20055. Its current status on several small islands is unclear, but surveys of Masakambing on the Masalembu Islands in 2008 found only ten individuals remaining of race abbotti9. A feral population of several hundred birds exists in Hong Kong.

Important Bird Areas Click here to view map showing IBAs where species is recorded and triggers any of the IBA criteria.

Ecology: It inhabits forest (including evergreen, moist deciduous, monsoon and semi-evergreen), forest edge, scrub and agriculture up to 500 m on Sulawesi, and 800 m (sometimes 1,500 m) in Nusa Tenggara. On at least some islands (e.g. Sumba), it appears heavily dependent on closed-canopy primary forest. On others, it survives despite the total clearance of original vegetation, indicating that its habitat requirements are somewhat flexible. Breeding takes place from September to May on Sumba2. It nests in tree cavities with specific requirements.

Threats Its precipitous decline is almost entirely attributable to unsustainable exploitation for internal and international trade. Large-scale logging and conversion of forest to agriculture across its range has exacerbated the decline, and the use of pesticides since around 1989 is a further potential threat. At least formerly, the species was regarded as a crop-pest, and consequently persecuted. High rainfall years appear to limit productivity considerably resulting in very low recruitment. Conversely, rainfall on Komodo has been low in recent years leading to limited availability of water sources. Competition for cavity nest sites with other parrots and owls in large trees (those targeted by logging activities) leads to low productivity2.

Conservation measures underway CITES Appendix I (2005). A cooperative recovery plan has been developed and adopted. Populations occur in several protected areas, the most important being Rawa Aopa Watumohai and Caraente National Parks (on Sulawesi) which supports up to 100 individuals6, Suaka Margasatwa Nature Reserve on Pulau Moyo, Komodo National Park and two national parks on Sumba: Manupeu-Tanahdaru and Laiwangi-Wanggameti. The declared Nini Konis Santana National Park in Timor holds an estimated 100 birds1. Moratoria on international trade have been effective at allowing several subpopulations on Sumba to increase in number between 1992 and 2002, although densities remained below those typical of other cockatoo species4

Conservation measures proposed Conduct further surveys to identify the most appropriate areas for conservation action and to periodically monitor key populations by repeating surveys conducted 8-10 years ago. Conduct ecological research to clarify options for its management and conservation. Provide support for relevant protected areas and conservation initiatives within its range and protect nest-trees where possible. Strengthen control and monitoring of trade. Improve law enforcement in designated protected areas. Promote widespread community-based conservation initiatives. Recommendations made specifically for the protection of the species in Komodo National Park were to conduct annual monitoring, maintain regular patrols, raise awareness in local communities and study human activities and impacts within the park3,5. Additional targets should be to study the abundance and distribution of nest holes and water sources. Providing artificial water sources near nest locations, i.e water ponds, is essential for Yellow-crested Cockatoo on Komodo Island.

References BirdLife International (2001). 1. Trainor et al. (undated). 2. Walker et al. (2005). 3. Benstead (2006). 4. Cahill et al. (2006). 5. Imansyah et al. (2005). 6. Nandika (2006). 7. Agista and Rubyanto (2001). 8. Imansyah et al. (2008). 9. Anon (2008). 10. D. Kelly in litt. (2009).

Population estimate Population trend Range estimate (breeding/resident) Country endemic?
2,500-9,999 decreasing 256,000 km2 No


Dari 85 jenis burung paruh bengkok yang ada di Indonesia, terdapat 7  jenis burung  kakatua. Ciri khas yang membedakan burung kakatua dengan burung paruh bengkok lainnya adalah bulu jambul atau mahkota di ubun-ubun kepalanya.  Bulu jambul ini dapat ditegakkan  jika burung kakatua merasa terkejut, gembira atau ketakutan.  Warna bulu jambul sangat bervariasi.  Warna putih pada kakatua putih besar jambul putih (Cacatua alba), warna kuning pada kakatua putih besar jambul kuning (Cacatua galerita) dan kakatua putih kecil jambul kuning (Cacatua sulphurea), warna jingga pada kakatua putih kecil jambul jingga (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata), warna merah muda pada kakatua maluku (Cacatua moluccensis) dan warna hitam pada kakatua raja (Probosciger aterrimus).

Bentuk jambulnya cukup bervariasi juga.  Berbentuk payung mengembang pada kakatua putih besar jambul putih, berbentuk rumbai-rumbai pada kakatua raja, berbentuk kucir pada kakatua putih besar jambul kuning dan kakatua putih kecil jambul kuning.

Di Indonesia hanya dikenal 3 warna, yaitu putih, merah muda dan hitam. Semua jenis kakatua mempunyai warna bulu jambul yang sesuai dengan warna bulu tubuhnya.  Ada perkecualian pada kakatua putih besar jambul kuning, kakatua putih kecil jambul kuning dan kakatua putih kecil jambul jingga.

Burung ini mempunyai paruh yang bengkok dan kuat sehingga sering disebut juga burung paruh bengkok.    Bentuk kakinya juga mempunyai susunan jari kaki yang bersilangan.  Susunan jari kakinya yaitu dua jari mengarah ke depan dan dua jari mengarah ke belakang.  Dengan begitu burung kakatua dapat memegang, menggenggam dan memanjat.  Lidahnya menyerupai kubus, bersifat lentur sehingga lidahnya dapat meraba-raba pakan yang sedang dimakannya.

Keistimewaan lainnya adalah adanya bedak di bulu tubuhnya untuk melindungi bulunya dari air.


Kakatua putih besar jambul putih (Cacatua alba)

Ciri Ciri : ukuran tubuh sekitar 45 cm, seluruh bulu tubuh dan jambulnya berwarna putih.  Penyebarannya meliputi Kepulauan Maluku bagian tengah dan utara, yaitu P. Obi, P. Bacan, P. Halmahera, P. Ternate dan P. Tidore.

Kakatua  jambul kuning (Cacatua galerita)

Ciri-ciri : ukuran tubuh sekitar 45 cm, bulu tubuhnya berwarna putih dengan jambul berwarna kuning.  Penyebarannya meliputi daerah Kepulauan Maluku, Irian Jaya sampai Australia.  Jenis ini mempunyai 4 ras (anak jenis).  Di Indonesia hanya ada 2 anak jenis yaitu Cacatua galerita eleonora dan Cacatua galerita triton.  Dua anak jenis lainnya yaitu Cacatua galerita galerita di Australia dan Cacatua galerita fitzroyi di Australia bagian utara.  Ciri khas Cacatua galerita yang ada di Indonesia adalah :

  • Cacatua galerita eleonora : Jenis ini disebut juga kakatua jambul kuning ukuran medium atau sedang.  Ciri khas lain adalah kelopak matanya berwarna putih.  Penyebarannya meliputi daerah sekitar P. Aru.
  • Cacatua galerita triton : Jenis ini disebut juga kakatua jambul kuning ukuran besar.  Ukuran tubuhnya lebih besar daripada Cacatua galerita eleonora. Bedanya dengan Cacatua galerita eleonora adalah kelopak mata Cacatua galerita triton berwarna biru muda.  Penyebarannya sekitar Irian Jaya.

Kakatua rawa atau kakatua goffini (Cacatua goffini)

Ukuran tubuhnya 29 cm.  Bulu tubuh dan jambulnya berwarna putih dengan bercak merah di sekitar bulu paruh.  Penyebarannya di sekitar P. Tanimbar

Kakatua sanguinea (Cacatua pastinator atau Cacatua sanguinea)

Ukuran tubuhnya 38 cm.  Bulu tubuh dan jambulnya berwarna putih.  Kelopak matanya agak lebar dan berwarna biru.  Jenis ini mempunyai 2 anak jenis yaitu Cacatua sanguinea sanguinea yang penyebarannya di sekitar Australia bagian timur, barat laut dan utara dan Cacatua sanguinea normantoni yang tersebar di sekitar Irian Jaya bagian selatan, Australia bagian utara dan Queensland.

Kakatua maluku (Cacatua moluccensis)

Ukuran tubuhnya 55 cm.  Bulu tubuh dan jambulnya berwarna merah muda.  Penyebarannya meliputi daerah sekitar Kepulauan Maluku bagian selatan yaitu P. Seram, P. Saparua dan P. Haruku.

Kakatua raja (Probosciger aterrimus)

Ukuran tubuhnya berkisar 55 – 70 cm.  Bulu tubuh dan jambulnya berwarna hitam dengan pipi berwarna merah tua.  Penyebarannya sekitar Irian Jaya dan Australia.  Jenis ini mempunyai 3 anak jenis yaitu :

  • Probosciger aterrimus goliath : Ukuran tubuhnya paling besar diantara ke-3 anak jenis yaitu berkisar 60 – 70 cm.  Penyebarannya meliputi daerah sekitar Irian Jaya bagian barat, daerah kepala burung dan P. Waigeo.
  • Probosciger aterrimus aterrimus : Ukuran tubuhnya berkisar antara 55 – 60 cm.  Penyebarannya meliputi daerah Irian Jaya bagian selatan, P. Aru sampai Australia bagian utara.
  • Probosciger aterrimus stenolophus : Ukuran tubuhnya hampir sama dengan Probosciger aterrimus goliath, tetapi lebar bulu jambulnya lebih sempit.  Penyebarannya meliputi sekitar Irian Jaya bagian utara dan P. Yapen.

Kakatua kecil jambul kuning (Cacatua sulphurea)

Ukuran tubuhnya 34 cm.  Bulu tubuhnya berwarna putih sedangkan jambulnya berwarna kuning atau jingga, tergantung anak jenisnya.  Penyebarannya sekitar Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi dan pulau-pulau sekitarnya.  Jenis ini mempunyai 6 ras atau anak jenis yaitu :

  • Cacatua sulphurea sulphurea : Penyebarannya di sekitar P. Sulawesi dan P. Butung.
  • Cacatua sulphurea jampeana : Penyebarannya di sekitar P. Jampea.
  • Cacatua sulphurea abbotti : Penyebarannya di P. Solombo Besar.
  • Cacatua sulphurea occidentalis : Penyebarannya di P. Lombok, P. Sumbawa dan P. Flores.
  • Cacatua sulphurea parvula: Penyebarannya di sekitar P. Timor.
  • Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata : Penyebarannya di P. Sumba. 

Kakatua Putih | Cacatua alba | White Cockatoo

Kakatua Putih | Cacatua alba | White Cockatoo

White Cockatoo (Cacatua alba) (also known as the Umbrella Cockatoo),  It is a white parrot with brown or black eyes and a dark grey beak. When surprised, it extends a large and striking crest, which has a semicircular shape (similar to an umbrella, hence the alternative name).  The undersides of the wings and tail have a pale yellow or lemon color which flashes when they fly. The White Cockatoo can live up to, and perhaps beyond, 80 years.

Justification This species has undergone a rapid population decline, principally owing to unsustainable levels of exploitation. This is likely to continue in the near future, unless recently revised trapping quotas are effectively enforced. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.


White Cockatoo is  medium-sized, approximately 46-cm-long (19 in) long, and weighs about 400 grams for small females and up to 800 grams for big males. The male White Cockatoo usually has a broader head and a bigger beak than the female. During puberty, the female White Cockatoo can begin to develop a more reddish iris than the male. All white with underside of wings and tail washed yellow. Long, backward-curving white crest. Grey-black bill, white bare eye-ring, yellowish-white or slightly bluish, grey legs. Similar spp. Yellow-crested Cockatoo C. sulphurea, Sulphur-crested Cockatoo C. galerita and Salmon-crested Cockatoo C. moluccensis all have yellow, orange or pink crest feathers. Voice Short, loud, nasal high-pitched screech. Sometimes a rapid series of lower-pitched notes in flight.

The feathers of the White Cockatoo are mostly white. However, both upper and lower surfaces of the inner half of the trailing edge of the large wing feathers are a yellow color. The yellow color on the underside of the wings is most notable because the yellow portion of the upper surface of the feather is covered by the white of the feather immediately medial (nearer to the body) and above. Similarly, areas of larger tail feathers that are covered by other tail feathers – and the innermost covered areas of the larger crest feathers – are yellow. Short white feathers grow from and closely cover the upper legs.

Conservation status

White Cockatoo is considered vulnerable by the IUCN. Its numbers in the wild have declined owing to habitat loss and illegal trapping for the cage-bird trade. It is listed in appendix II of the CITES list of protected species which gives it protection by making the export, import and trade of wild-caught birds illegal.

The high market-value of these birds has led to unsustainable levels of harvesting for the pet trade. In 1994 the White Cockatoo was listed as a CITES I endangered species. This species has since been taken off the endangered species list, but is still listed as Vulnerable. Principal threats to this species are the pet trade and loss and degradation of their forest habitat.

In addition to the necessity of law enforcement to stop the illegal parrot trade, ProFauna urges the Indonesian government to raise the status of the white Cockatoo (Cacatua alba), the endemic species of Northern Maluku, to that of an Indonesian protected species.

The smuggling of parrots to the Philippines breaks the CITES (Convention of International on Trade in Endangered Species) agreements ratified by Indonesia in 1978. Most parrots are listed in Appendix II. Parrots in CITES Appendix II are prohibited from international commercial trade unless they are captive bred or permitted by the exporting country. In Indonesia the bird trade is controlled by the catch quota. Parrots in the trade are not captive bred.

The illegal trade of protected parrots violates the Indonesian legislation passed in 1990 (a wildlife law concerning Natural Resources and the Ecosystems Conservations). Accordingly, the perpetrators are liable to a maximum five-year prison term and a maximum 100-million Rupiah fine. Unfortunately, the Indonesian government has not enforced the law because many protected parrots are still being smuggled abroad and sold openly in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

Population estimate Population trend Range estimate (breeding/resident) Country endemic?
43,000 – 183,000 decreasing 20,500 km2 Yes

Range & population Cacatua alba is endemic to the islands of Halmahera, Bacan, Ternate, Tidore, Kasiruta and Mandiole in North Maluku, Indonesia. Records from Obi and Bisa are thought to reflect introductions. It remains locally common: in 1991-1992, the population was estimated at 42,545-183,129 birds1, although this may be an underestimate as it was largely based on surveys from Bacan and not Halmahera where the species may have been commoner. Recent observations indicate that rapid declines are underway. CITES data show significant harvest rates for the cage bird trade during the early 1990s. Annual harvests have declined in actual terms and as a proportion of the remaining population in recent years.Important Bird Areas Click here to view map showing IBAs where species is recorded and triggers any of the IBA criteria.

white cockatoo I Photographer : © Jon Hornbuckle

Ecology: It is resident (perhaps making minor nomadic movements) in primary, logged and secondary forest up to 900 m. It also occurs in mangroves, plantations (including coconut) and agricultural land, suggesting that it tolerates some habitat modification. The highest densities occur in primary forest, and it requires large trees for nesting and communal roosting.

Threats Unsustainable levels of trapping for the cage-bird trade pose the greatest threat. In 1991, an estimated minimum of 6,600 birds (possibly representing a mere quarter of the actual figure) were taken from the wild. Catch quotas for the species were exceeded by up to 18 times in some localities, indicating that trappers were removing in the order of 17% of the population annually. Although forest within its range remains relatively intact, exploitation by logging companies has become intensive, and some areas are have been cleared for agriculture and mining. Habitat and nest-site availability is therefore decreasing, particularly the latter. Furthermore, new logging roads greatly facilitate access for trappers.

Conservation measures underway CITES Appendix II. The North Maluku government has proposed to the Forestry Ministry that the species be classified as a protected species2. The Indonesian government issues catch quotas and all capture was illegal in 1999. It occurs in three protected areas: Gunung Sibela Strict Nature Reserve on Bacan, although this site is threatened by agricultural encroachment and gold prospecting and Aketajawe Nature Reserve and the Lalobata Protected Forest on Halmahera.
Conservation measures proposed Monitor national and international trade. Conduct research into population dynamics, ranging behaviour and threats, so that appropriate trapping quotas may be devised. Promote more effective enforcement of trapping quotas. Introduce trapping concessions to increase self-regulation of trade. Initiate a conservation awareness campaign promoting local support for the species and the regulated collection of eggs and young, rather than adults.


White Cockatoo nests in tree cavities. Its eggs are white and there are usually two in a clutch. During the incubation period – about 28 days – both the female and male incubate the eggs. The larger chick becomes dominant over the smaller chick and takes more of the food. The chicks leave the nest about 84 days after hatching.[1]


  1. ^ Alderton, David (2003). The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Caged and Aviary Birds. London, England: Hermes House. p. 204. ISBN 184309164X.
  2. ^ “?”.