Monthly Archives: Oktober 2010

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REASON WHY,  WILD ANIMALS MORE BEAUTIFUL IN WILD In developed countries have no rules of law regarding the protection of wildlife and wildlife explicitly reject serve as the star’s pet. And this is a good place for native species (the … Baca lebih lanjut

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ALASAN KENAPA SATWA LIAR LEBIH INDAH DI ALAM Di negara maju  telah ada aturan hukum mengenai perlindungan satwa dan secara tegas menolak satwa liar dijadikan sebagai bintang peliharaan. Dan hal ini diberlakukan baik untuk jenis satwa asli ( negaranya ) … Baca lebih lanjut

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Kakatua-kecil Jambul-kuning | Cacatua sulphurea | Yellow-crested Cockatoo

The Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea, also known as the Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, is a medium-sized (approximately 35 cm long) cockatoo with white plumage, bluish-white bare orbital skin, grey feet, a black bill, and a retractile yellow crest. The sexes are similar.

C.s. sulphurea: both adults white plumage with yellow at bases of feathers of head and underparts; bright yellow crest and ear coverts. Eye ring soft white. Eye dark brown in male, brown/red in female. C.s. parvula: both adults as in sulphurea, but yellow ear coverts paler and feather bases less yellow where mentioned. C.s. abbotti: both adults as in parvula but larger in size. C.s. citrinocristata: both adults crest and ear coverts golden orange.

Colourization Juvenile:

C.s. sulphurea: as in adult, but with pale grey eye. C.s. parvula: as in adult. C.s. abbotti: as in adult. C.s. citrinocristata: as in adult.

The Yellow-crested Cockatoo is found in wooded and cultivated areas of Timor-Leste and Indonesia’s islands of Bali, Timor, Sulawesi and Lesser Sunda Islands. It is easily confused with the larger and more common Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, which is native to Australia and can be distinguished by the lack of pale yellow coloring on its cheeks (although some sulphur-cresteds develop yellowish patches). Also, the Yellow-crested Cockatoo’s crest is a brighter color, closer to orange. The Citron-crested Cockatoo is similar, but its crest is orange.

Population estimate Population trend Range estimate (breeding/resident) Country endemic?
2,500-9,999 decreasing 256,000 km Indonesia

Range & population Cacatua sulphurea is endemic to Timor-Leste and

Indonesia, where it was formerly common throughout Nusa Tenggara (from Bali to Timor), on Sulawesi and its satellite islands, and the Masalembu Islands (in the Java Sea). It has undergone a dramatic decline, particularly in the last quarter of the 20th century, such that it is now extinct on many islands and close to extinction on most others. Sumba appears to support the largest remaining population, tentatively estimated (in 1992) at c.3,200 birds (but declining by perhaps 500 birds annually, with just 10% of the island still forested in 34 fragments2), with other significant (but considerably smaller) populations on Komodo (c.500 individuals), Sulawesi, Buton, Moyo and Timor-Leste1. Tiny populations of just a few individuals also exist in the Tukangbesi Islands, on Oroho Island (a satellite of Wangi Wangi Island) and on Lintea Selatan (a satellite of Tomea Island)10. The Komodo population alone (where poaching is virtually absent) declined by an estimated 60% between 2000-20055. Its current status on several small islands is unclear, but surveys of Masakambing on the Masalembu Islands in 2008 found only ten individuals remaining of race abbotti9. A feral population of several hundred birds exists in Hong Kong.

Important Bird Areas Click here to view map showing IBAs where species is recorded and triggers any of the IBA criteria.

Ecology: It inhabits forest (including evergreen, moist deciduous, monsoon and semi-evergreen), forest edge, scrub and agriculture up to 500 m on Sulawesi, and 800 m (sometimes 1,500 m) in Nusa Tenggara. On at least some islands (e.g. Sumba), it appears heavily dependent on closed-canopy primary forest. On others, it survives despite the total clearance of original vegetation, indicating that its habitat requirements are somewhat flexible. Breeding takes place from September to May on Sumba2. It nests in tree cavities with specific requirements.

Threats Its precipitous decline is almost entirely attributable to unsustainable exploitation for internal and international trade. Large-scale logging and conversion of forest to agriculture across its range has exacerbated the decline, and the use of pesticides since around 1989 is a further potential threat. At least formerly, the species was regarded as a crop-pest, and consequently persecuted. High rainfall years appear to limit productivity considerably resulting in very low recruitment. Conversely, rainfall on Komodo has been low in recent years leading to limited availability of water sources. Competition for cavity nest sites with other parrots and owls in large trees (those targeted by logging activities) leads to low productivity2.

Conservation measures underway CITES Appendix I (2005). A cooperative recovery plan has been developed and adopted. Populations occur in several protected areas, the most important being Rawa Aopa Watumohai and Caraente National Parks (on Sulawesi) which supports up to 100 individuals6, Suaka Margasatwa Nature Reserve on Pulau Moyo, Komodo National Park and two national parks on Sumba: Manupeu-Tanahdaru and Laiwangi-Wanggameti. The declared Nini Konis Santana National Park in Timor holds an estimated 100 birds1. Moratoria on international trade have been effective at allowing several subpopulations on Sumba to increase in number between 1992 and 2002, although densities remained below those typical of other cockatoo species4

Conservation measures proposed Conduct further surveys to identify the most appropriate areas for conservation action and to periodically monitor key populations by repeating surveys conducted 8-10 years ago. Conduct ecological research to clarify options for its management and conservation. Provide support for relevant protected areas and conservation initiatives within its range and protect nest-trees where possible. Strengthen control and monitoring of trade. Improve law enforcement in designated protected areas. Promote widespread community-based conservation initiatives. Recommendations made specifically for the protection of the species in Komodo National Park were to conduct annual monitoring, maintain regular patrols, raise awareness in local communities and study human activities and impacts within the park3,5. Additional targets should be to study the abundance and distribution of nest holes and water sources. Providing artificial water sources near nest locations, i.e water ponds, is essential for Yellow-crested Cockatoo on Komodo Island.

References BirdLife International (2001). 1. Trainor et al. (undated). 2. Walker et al. (2005). 3. Benstead (2006). 4. Cahill et al. (2006). 5. Imansyah et al. (2005). 6. Nandika (2006). 7. Agista and Rubyanto (2001). 8. Imansyah et al. (2008). 9. Anon (2008). 10. D. Kelly in litt. (2009).

Population estimate Population trend Range estimate (breeding/resident) Country endemic?
2,500-9,999 decreasing 256,000 km2 No

MENGENAL JENIS KAKATUA DI INDONESIA

Dari 85 jenis burung paruh bengkok yang ada di Indonesia, terdapat 7  jenis burung  kakatua. Ciri khas yang membedakan burung kakatua dengan burung paruh bengkok lainnya adalah bulu jambul atau mahkota di ubun-ubun kepalanya.  Bulu jambul ini dapat ditegakkan  jika burung kakatua merasa terkejut, gembira atau ketakutan.  Warna bulu jambul sangat bervariasi.  Warna putih pada kakatua putih besar jambul putih (Cacatua alba), warna kuning pada kakatua putih besar jambul kuning (Cacatua galerita) dan kakatua putih kecil jambul kuning (Cacatua sulphurea), warna jingga pada kakatua putih kecil jambul jingga (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata), warna merah muda pada kakatua maluku (Cacatua moluccensis) dan warna hitam pada kakatua raja (Probosciger aterrimus).

Bentuk jambulnya cukup bervariasi juga.  Berbentuk payung mengembang pada kakatua putih besar jambul putih, berbentuk rumbai-rumbai pada kakatua raja, berbentuk kucir pada kakatua putih besar jambul kuning dan kakatua putih kecil jambul kuning.

Di Indonesia hanya dikenal 3 warna, yaitu putih, merah muda dan hitam. Semua jenis kakatua mempunyai warna bulu jambul yang sesuai dengan warna bulu tubuhnya.  Ada perkecualian pada kakatua putih besar jambul kuning, kakatua putih kecil jambul kuning dan kakatua putih kecil jambul jingga.

Burung ini mempunyai paruh yang bengkok dan kuat sehingga sering disebut juga burung paruh bengkok.    Bentuk kakinya juga mempunyai susunan jari kaki yang bersilangan.  Susunan jari kakinya yaitu dua jari mengarah ke depan dan dua jari mengarah ke belakang.  Dengan begitu burung kakatua dapat memegang, menggenggam dan memanjat.  Lidahnya menyerupai kubus, bersifat lentur sehingga lidahnya dapat meraba-raba pakan yang sedang dimakannya.

Keistimewaan lainnya adalah adanya bedak di bulu tubuhnya untuk melindungi bulunya dari air.

KERAGAMAN JENIS KAKATUA

Kakatua putih besar jambul putih (Cacatua alba)

Ciri Ciri : ukuran tubuh sekitar 45 cm, seluruh bulu tubuh dan jambulnya berwarna putih.  Penyebarannya meliputi Kepulauan Maluku bagian tengah dan utara, yaitu P. Obi, P. Bacan, P. Halmahera, P. Ternate dan P. Tidore.

Kakatua  jambul kuning (Cacatua galerita)

Ciri-ciri : ukuran tubuh sekitar 45 cm, bulu tubuhnya berwarna putih dengan jambul berwarna kuning.  Penyebarannya meliputi daerah Kepulauan Maluku, Irian Jaya sampai Australia.  Jenis ini mempunyai 4 ras (anak jenis).  Di Indonesia hanya ada 2 anak jenis yaitu Cacatua galerita eleonora dan Cacatua galerita triton.  Dua anak jenis lainnya yaitu Cacatua galerita galerita di Australia dan Cacatua galerita fitzroyi di Australia bagian utara.  Ciri khas Cacatua galerita yang ada di Indonesia adalah :

  • Cacatua galerita eleonora : Jenis ini disebut juga kakatua jambul kuning ukuran medium atau sedang.  Ciri khas lain adalah kelopak matanya berwarna putih.  Penyebarannya meliputi daerah sekitar P. Aru.
  • Cacatua galerita triton : Jenis ini disebut juga kakatua jambul kuning ukuran besar.  Ukuran tubuhnya lebih besar daripada Cacatua galerita eleonora. Bedanya dengan Cacatua galerita eleonora adalah kelopak mata Cacatua galerita triton berwarna biru muda.  Penyebarannya sekitar Irian Jaya.

Kakatua rawa atau kakatua goffini (Cacatua goffini)

Ukuran tubuhnya 29 cm.  Bulu tubuh dan jambulnya berwarna putih dengan bercak merah di sekitar bulu paruh.  Penyebarannya di sekitar P. Tanimbar

Kakatua sanguinea (Cacatua pastinator atau Cacatua sanguinea)

Ukuran tubuhnya 38 cm.  Bulu tubuh dan jambulnya berwarna putih.  Kelopak matanya agak lebar dan berwarna biru.  Jenis ini mempunyai 2 anak jenis yaitu Cacatua sanguinea sanguinea yang penyebarannya di sekitar Australia bagian timur, barat laut dan utara dan Cacatua sanguinea normantoni yang tersebar di sekitar Irian Jaya bagian selatan, Australia bagian utara dan Queensland.

Kakatua maluku (Cacatua moluccensis)

Ukuran tubuhnya 55 cm.  Bulu tubuh dan jambulnya berwarna merah muda.  Penyebarannya meliputi daerah sekitar Kepulauan Maluku bagian selatan yaitu P. Seram, P. Saparua dan P. Haruku.

Kakatua raja (Probosciger aterrimus)

Ukuran tubuhnya berkisar 55 – 70 cm.  Bulu tubuh dan jambulnya berwarna hitam dengan pipi berwarna merah tua.  Penyebarannya sekitar Irian Jaya dan Australia.  Jenis ini mempunyai 3 anak jenis yaitu :

  • Probosciger aterrimus goliath : Ukuran tubuhnya paling besar diantara ke-3 anak jenis yaitu berkisar 60 – 70 cm.  Penyebarannya meliputi daerah sekitar Irian Jaya bagian barat, daerah kepala burung dan P. Waigeo.
  • Probosciger aterrimus aterrimus : Ukuran tubuhnya berkisar antara 55 – 60 cm.  Penyebarannya meliputi daerah Irian Jaya bagian selatan, P. Aru sampai Australia bagian utara.
  • Probosciger aterrimus stenolophus : Ukuran tubuhnya hampir sama dengan Probosciger aterrimus goliath, tetapi lebar bulu jambulnya lebih sempit.  Penyebarannya meliputi sekitar Irian Jaya bagian utara dan P. Yapen.

Kakatua kecil jambul kuning (Cacatua sulphurea)

Ukuran tubuhnya 34 cm.  Bulu tubuhnya berwarna putih sedangkan jambulnya berwarna kuning atau jingga, tergantung anak jenisnya.  Penyebarannya sekitar Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi dan pulau-pulau sekitarnya.  Jenis ini mempunyai 6 ras atau anak jenis yaitu :

  • Cacatua sulphurea sulphurea : Penyebarannya di sekitar P. Sulawesi dan P. Butung.
  • Cacatua sulphurea jampeana : Penyebarannya di sekitar P. Jampea.
  • Cacatua sulphurea abbotti : Penyebarannya di P. Solombo Besar.
  • Cacatua sulphurea occidentalis : Penyebarannya di P. Lombok, P. Sumbawa dan P. Flores.
  • Cacatua sulphurea parvula: Penyebarannya di sekitar P. Timor.
  • Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata : Penyebarannya di P. Sumba.